Disinfection is serious business. When glutaraldehyde was first marketed
in the early 1960's 1, it was good news. Effective alternatives
were sought to the highly toxic, irritating and carcinogenic disinfectant
formaldehyde. However, reports of serious health effects from glutaraldehyde
exposure were published shortly thereafter2 and ever since.
Today, 40 years later, there are alternatives that offer high level disinfection
while protecting health care workers and the environment.
For more information...
Contact the Sustainable Hospitals Project (SHP) by phone (978) 934-3386, email at firstname.lastname@example.org, or mail: Sustainable Hospitals Project, Kitson 200, One University Avenue, Lowell, MA 01854.
(1) Stonehill AA, Drop S. Borick PM (1963). Buffered glutaraldehyde -- a new chemical sterilizing solution. Am J Hosp Pharm 20:459-65.
(2) Jordan WP Jr, Dahl MV, Albert HL (1972). Contact Dermatitis from Glutaraldehyde. Arch Dermatol 105: 94-95.
(3) Jordan WP Jr, Dahl MV, Albert HL (1972). Contact Dermatitis from Glutaraldehyde. Arch Dermatol 105: 94-95.
(4) Nethercott JR et al (1988). Occupational contact dermatitis due to glutaraldehyde in health care workers. 18:193-6.
(5) Werley MS, Burleigh-Flayer HD, Ballantyne B (1995). Respiratory Peripheral Sensory Irritation and Hypersensitivity studies with Glutaraldehyde Vapor. Toxicology and Industrial Health 11(5): 489-501.
(6) Di Stefano F et. al (1998) Occupational asthma due to glutaraldehyde, Monaldi Archives of Chest Diseases 53:50-5.
(7) Corrado OJ, Osman J, Davies RJ (1986). Asthma and Rhinitis after exposure to Glutaraldehyde in Endoscopy Units. Human Toxicology 5 (5): 328-8.
(8) Chan-Yeung M, McMurren T, Catonio-Begley F, Lam S (1993). Occupational asthma in a technologist exposed to glutaraldehyde. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91(5): 974-8.
(9) Gannon PFG et al. (1994) Occupational asthma due to glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde in endoscopy and x ray departments. Thorax 50: 156-159.
(10) Di Stefano F, Siriruttanapruk S, McCoach J, Sherwood Burge P. (1999) Glutaraldehyde: an occupational hazard in the hospital setting. Allergy 54:1105-1109.
(11) ACGIH (1998). Glutaraldehyde. Draft chemical summary and recommendations. American Congress of Government Industrial Hygienists. November 16, 1998.
(12) MMWR. Epidemiologic notes and reports: Symptoms of irritation associated with exposure to glutaraldehyde -- Colorado. April 3, 1987/36(12): 190-1.
(13) Ziem G, McTamney J (1997). Profile of Patients with Chemical Injury and Sensitivity. Environmental Health Perspectives 105 (supplement 2): 417-36.
(14) Rutala WA (1996) APIC Guideline for Selection and Use of Disinfectants. American Journal of Infection Control 24:313-42.
(15) CDRH (2000). Sterilants and High Level Disinfectants Cleared by FDA in a 510(k) as of January 28, 2000 with General Claims for processing Reusable Medical and Dental devices. Center for Devices and Radiological Health Office of Device Evaluation, Division of Dental, Infection Control and General Hospital Devices. Internet Download on 7/11/00. http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/ode/germlab.html
(16) Royal college of Nursing (2000). Is There an Alternative to Glutaraldehyde? A Review of Agents used in Cold Sterilisation. Royal College of Nursing Working Well Initiative. November, 2000.
(17) Crow S (1993). Peracetic Acid - Asking the Right Questions. Today's O.R. Nurse, May/June 1993: 47 - 49.
(18) ACGIH (1999). Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices, 6th Ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; Publication 0206, Cincinnati, OH.
(19) Rutala WA (1996) APIC Guideline for Selection and Use of Disinfectants. American Journal of Infection Control 24:313-42.
(20) Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (DHMC). Glutaraldehyde Waste Minimization Report. Unpublished report, 1997. Lebanon, New Hampshire.
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